The English Defence League (EDL) demonstrations began in Luton in April 2009.
The group initially claimed that it was responding to a protest against British troops returning from Afghanistan organised by a fringe Muslim organisation.
But its “Support our troops” demonstrations were used as an excuse to attack Muslims.
On 24 May a mob of right wing thugs descended on Luton, terrorising Asian people and attacking Asian-owned businesses.
Then the EDL organised a similar event in Birmingham city centre on 4 July, when a group occupied part of the city centre and abused black and Asian people.
On 8 August the EDL tried to march through Birmingham again but was driven away by a counter-protest called by Unite Against Fascism and other anti-racist groups.