Fallujah is roughly 45 miles from Baghdad on the Euphrates river.
During the first Gulf War Fallujah was one of the cities in Iraq with the most civilian casualties. Two raids by British and US planes hit crowded markets, leaving over 200 dead.
US troops entered the town and set up their headquarters in the vacated Baath Party offices.
28 April 2003
US troops fired on a crowd of 200 people protesting at the occupation of Fallujah. At least 15 Iraqi civilians were killed. The resistance grew from this point on. The US eventually lost control of most of the city.
US forces launched a massive assault on Fallujah. By the beginning of May they had been fought to a standstill and the US handed control to an Iraqi militia force which openly called for an end to the occupation. Throughout the summer and autumn the US military launched air strikes on the city.
8 November 2004
US forces and their Iraqi allies stormed into the city, launching “Operation Phantom Fury”. Reports by the Washington Post suggested that US armed forces used white phosphorous grenades, creating walls of fire in the city.
13 November 2004
A Red Crescent convoy containing humanitarian aid was barred from entering Fallujah by the US army. On the same day a US soldier was videotaped shooting a wounded, unarmed Iraqi to death in a mosque.